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  • » 08/17/2010, 00.00

    TURKEY

    Erdoğan’s victory over the military

    NAT da Polis

    After years of plots, coups and attacks, new military leaders are appointed. Kemalism’s first pillar, the military, is weakened. Soon, Erdoğan will go after the second, the courts. Turkey is changing.

    Istanbul (AsiaNews) – The appointment of General Işık Koşaner as the new Chief of the General Staff of the Turkish Armed Forces ends the long and difficult tug-of-war between Turkey’s top military brass and Prime Minister Recep Erdoğan. Coming during Ramadan, it marks the latter’s victory over the Armed Forces, and thus weakens one (the first) of the pillars of the Kemalist state, the other being the courts.

    Erdoğan’s victory will reshape the leadership of the Turkish Armed Forces. With Işık Koşaner’s appointment (until 2013), the prime minister has purged 11 top officers involved in some capacity in the Ergenekon (a clandestine, ultra-nationalist organisation) and Beyloz (planned attacks against religious minorities to blame on Islamists to overthrow the government) affairs.

    The outgoing chief, General Mehmet İlker Başbuğ, tried in a last ditch attempt to maintain the Kemalist hold on the military leadership by proposing General Hasan Iğsız, who is implicated in the Ergenekon affair, as new commander of the Army, and would thus be first in line to succeed Koşaner in 2013 according to the rules of Turkey’s rigid military hierarchy. However, his proposal angered Erdoğan.

    According to Taraf, a normally well-informed newspaper, General Başbuğ tried then to stop General Necdet Özel, an Erdoğan favourite, from being lined up as Koşaner’s replacement. By submitting the name of General Aslan Güner, he knew the latter would be rejected because he had offended President Abdullah Gül’s wife. Yet in doing so, he hoped to force Erdoğan’s hand and have him appoint Özel as army chief. Under the succession rules of Turkey’s Armed Forced, this would have forced Özel to retire in 2012 and stopped him from taking over from Koşaner.

    In a move worthy of a harem conspiracy, Erdoğan appointed instead Erdal Ceylanoğlu as the new commander of the Army, knowing that he would retire next year because of the mandatory age limit, thus giving him the freedom to appoint his favourite, General Özel, in 2013 when Koşaner steps down.

    The new chief of the General Staff, General Koşaner, is a soldier of few words. He has steered clear of the current confrontation between military leaders and government. According to Radikal, a well-respected newspaper, in 2006 the general made it clear that he would oppose a coup. Similarly, during the heated debate at the time of President Gül’s election, he said, “The law does not indicate how the wife of the president should dress. What matters is that whoever is elected respects the constitution.” According to Prof Mesut Caşın, of Yeditepe University, the general is a tough guy.

    After the latest clash between Erdoğan and Turkey’s military leaders, Kemalism as a state ideology and political philosophy appears to gasping for life. The current situation is a far cry from the time when political leaders had to submit to the wishes of the military-led National Security Council.

    Still, Turks are paying for a system that stood in the way of a truly democratic state. Turkey’s form of government was statocratic and national-fascist in orientation, its elites fearful that the democratic emancipation of a pluralistic society would spell the end of the system itself.

    Under its constraints, Turkey’s parliamentary democracy was permanently placed under the power of the armed forces and a militarised bureaucracy. However, a close observer of Turkish affairs, Dr S. Ligheros, noted that whilst Kemalism developed as new religion to replace the old system founded on the prerogatives of the sultan as Caliph, old mindsets and behaviours do not easily change by political fiat.

    Now, the second pillar of the old establishment, the courts, is coming up for a tough shakeup. In fact, a constitutional referendum is scheduled for 12 September. In the meantime, whenever he is in a tight spot Erdoğan uses the threat of resignation to stay in power, quite conscious that few if any in Turkey want to take his place.

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    See also

    04/07/2008 TURKEY
    Erdoğan and Kemalist establishment trade blows at each other
    On the one hand, there is a demand before the Constitutional Court to disband the AKP; on the other, former generals have been arrested in the Ergenekon Network affair. Should the Court dissolve the AKP, current prime minister has a new party waiting in the wings, but he could no longer officially take part in politics.

    28/07/2008 TURKEY
    In the wake of deadly attacks Turkey waits anxiously for Court’s decision on the AKP
    The Constitutional Court begins today to examine request to dissolve ruling party, accused of planning to introduce Sharia. There is concern for the fact that the deliberations are taking place at the same time as top spots in armed forces must be replaced.

    03/04/2008 TURKEY
    Erdoğan’s tightrope between Europe and Turkey’s bureaucratic elite
    The decision by Turkey’s Constitutional Court to hear a legal petition to disband the governing party of Prime Minister Erdoğan and President Gül is causing waves across the country. Today Europe’s last wall has fallen.

    18/07/2016 14:00:00 TURKEY
    A failed coup and the power of Erdogan: Overture to a tragedy

    New pro-Erdogan demonstrations in Istanbul and Ankara. The weak attempt to overthrow the regime was not supported by Army Chiefs. Increased arrests and the possibility of introduction of the death penalty. Turkish democracy threatened by Kemalist secularism and Islamic fundamentalism.

     



    11/08/2011 TURKEY
    Erdogan and the Turkish military: the challenge continues
    The Turkish premier responds to the protest resignation of military leaders with new appointments, supported by the head of state Gul, emboldened by election victory two months ago. But the choices reveal a compromise. The new chief of staff accused of war crimes in the Kurdish provinces.



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